"AlleyCat" wrote in message news:***@news.eternal-september.org...
On Fri, 8 Jun 2018 08:03:15 -0700 (PDT), Tom Sr. says...
*Hurricanes Are Slowing Down and Leaving More Damage When They Hit Land*
Below is a listing of some of the most memorable hurricanes 1600-1900. While
the number of casualties from these storms have gone down over the years,
the cost from the damage caused by these storms have risen tremendously.
That has resulted from more building along the coastline, and more expensive
homes and businesses. Where was the CO2 crisis then?
Tempest of 1609--At the time that the first ever colony in the United States
was being developed, a strong hurricane menaced the Western Atlantic in the
weeks following the departure of a fleet with 500 colonists left Great
Britain for the New World. The ships then met with the maelstrom head on,
and scattering all the vessels. Most were able to survive the onslaught of
Mother Nature except for the flagship of the fleet, the Sea Venture, which
was deposited in the infamous "Isle of Devils." Nevertheless, those who were
on the ship still managed to reach shore, and received a much better fate
than those, who had already situated themselves in the colony. The story of
the Sea Venture was the basis of William Shakespeare's play, The Tempest.
Colonial Hurricane of 1635--Was a powerful New England hurricane that struck
the Massachusetts Bay Colony in 1635 some fifteen years after the Mayflower
struck land at Plymouth Rock. This storm had reminded many of the pilgrims
and settlers of past hurricanes that struck in the West Indies or Caribbean.
Many of the pilgrims believed that this storm was apocalyptic.
1667--The Year Of The Hurricane--At a time when the Mid-Atlantic states of
North Carolina, Virginia, and Maryland agreed to temporarily halt production
of tobacco, a strong hurricane ripped through the Mid-Atlantic region on
August 27th. While there was no recorded statistics such as where the storm
made landfall, its track, and its forward speed and intensity. It destroyed
80 percent of the tobacco and corn while destroying some 15,000 homes in
Virginia and Maryland.
Accomack Storm of October 1693--This storm was captured by Mr. Scarburgh at
his residence in Virginia's Eastern Shore. Described by many weather record
keepers as a very powerful storm, the Accomack Storm "cut inlets as far
north as Fire Island, near New York City."
The Great Gust of 1724--According to Rick Schwartz's book, "Hurricanes and
the Mid-Atlantic States," two hurricanes brought significant wind and rain
to the Mid-Atlantic region in 1724. The first storm moved through the area
around August 12th, and caused torrential rains and devastating winds. Less
than a week later, another violent storm system came through on August 17th,
18th, and 19th with violent winds and rain. These two systems are among the
most significant tropical storms to affect the Mid-Atlantic during the
colonial period of the late 1600s and 1700s.
Hurricane of October, 1743--A storm that affected what would become the
Northeastern United States and New England, brought gusty winds and rainy
conditions as far as Philadelphia, and produced flooding in Boston. Central
barometric pressure of the storm was measured to be 29.35 inches of Hg in
Boston. This storm, which wasn't particularly powerful, was memorable
because it garnered the interest of future patriot and one of the founders
of the United States, Benjamin Franklin, who believed the storm was coming
in from Boston. However, it was going to Boston. Nevertheless, it began the
long educational journey, which would be our understanding of hurricanes.
Hurricane of October, 1749--The storm was perhaps one of the strongest storm
ever in the Mid-Atlantic. According to Rick Schwartz, the hurricane produced
a huge tidal surge of 15 feet. Based upon that observation, many experts
believe that this system was a Category Four on the Saffir-Simpson Scale. It
was responsible for creating Willoughby Spit, a small area of land near
Norfolk that was inside the Chesapeake Bay.
The Great Chesapeake Bay Hurricane of 1769--This hurricane plagued the
Mid-Atlantic coast from North Carolina up into the Chesapeake over the two
days of September 7-8, 1769, and was probably one of the strongest storms in
the Mid-Atlantic during the 18th Century. It made landfall near New Bern,
North Carolina, and laid that town in ruin as tides rose 12 feet above
normal. Most notably, it caused widespread damage to the Stratford Hall
plantation, which belonged to the family of famous confederate General
Robert E. Lee.
The Independence Hurricane of 1775--With the winds of revolution blowing
about in the fledgling 13 colonies, Mother Nature had a wind that
temporarily put a halt to those rebellious thoughts. A hurricane roared up
the East Coast, and triggered one of the early Revolutionary War skirmishes
in the biggest colony of Virginia. It came close to impacting Georgia and
South Carolina on September 2nd before moving ashore over North Carolina.
The storm then picked up steam through Virginia, Maryland, and Pennsylvania.
One of the more notable casualties of the storm was the roof of the Maryland
State House, which was replaced by a wind resistant dome.
Great Hurricane of 1780--This storm was one of several that year, which was
one of the worst hurricane seasons in the era prior to record taking. Winds
were estimated to be Category Four strength at 135 mph. This storm, which
affected the Southern Windward Islands including Barbados, St. Vincent,
Grenada, Martinique, St. Eustatius, and near Puerto Rico and Grand Turk
Island, is believed to have killed approximately 22,000 people. Of that
total, between 4,000 and 5,000 people were killed on St. Eustatius.
Martinique had an estimated 9,000 people killed including 1,000 in St.
Pierre, which had all of its homes destroyed.
The Great Coastal Hurricane of 1785--Hurricanes that occur within weeks of
each other usually take parallel tracks. Take a look at hurricanes Katrina
and Rita from 2005 for instance. The Atlantic Hurricane season of 1785 was a
very busy one. One hurricane in early September of that year wrecked the
ship called the Faithful Steward. Weeks later, another storm developed, and
brushed the Delmarva Peninsula. The storm's legacy was the creation of the
"long-sought" lighthouse at Cape Henry, which was opened seven years later
in 1792. Lighthouses were essential in preventing shipwrecks like the
Faithful Steward, and another immigrant ship guided by shipmaster, Captain
George Washington's Hurricane of 1788--This hurricane, which began its drive
toward landfall after nearing Bermuda on July 19th, proceeded on a
west-northwest course into the Outer Banks of North Carolina, and then into
Virginia. The Chesapeake Bay region absorbed the worst that the storm had to
offer. Most notably though, this storm is remembered for the way it was
described by the father of the United States, and first president, George
Washington. By the time the storm reached Washington's home in Mount Vernon,
it was likely to have been a moderate tropical storm with winds about 50
Hurricanes of 1795--Two hurricanes assaulted Virginia in August 1795, and
destroyed the crops of another hero of the American Revolution, Thomas
Jefferson. The two storms, which were ten days apart, caused the Appomattox
River to crest more than 12 feet above flood stage at the city of
Petersburg, which was the highest level reached in 70 years. Jefferson, who
kept a perfect record of regular weather observations for 40 years between
1776 and 1816, recorded the devastation that the two storms left behind,
especially the heavy losses that he suffered at his plantation, the famous
Great Coastal Hurricane of 1806--The first major hurricane of the 19th
Century made landfall south of the city of Wilmington on the southern shores
of North Carolina on August 21st, and then proceeded on a gradual
northeasterly drift for about 250 miles over the subsequent 36 hours.
Constant gale force winds produced tremendous beach erosion, and "firmly
established" the sandbar of Willoughby Spit at the mouth of the Chesapeake
Bay near Norfolk. It was also responsible for the loss of the ship,
Rose-in-Bloom, which founded near Barnegat, New Jersey.
Great September Gale of 1815--Was the last hurricane to strike New England
before the Long Island Express of 1938. The storm struck on September 23,
1815, and brought an 11 foot storm surge to Providence, which was the
highest storm surge in the Rhode Island capital prior to the Great Hurricane
of 1938, which had a 17.6 foot storm surge. This storm was the first
hurricane to strike New England in exactly 180 years.
Cape May Hurricane of 1821--The last major hurricane to make a direct
landfall in the Garden State of New Jersey. This storm, which was a Category
Four Hurricane, struck Cape May, New Jersey on September 3, 1821, and had
hurricane force winds go as far west as Philadelphia while folks in New
Jersey experienced wind gusts of up to 200 mph. The storm cut a path of
destruction that is similar to that of the Garden State Parkway. More
detailed information on this hurricane is at Greg Hoffman's Real Lousy
The Hurricane of 1846--Referred to as "The Great", used its northeast
quadrant that caused havoc on the Delaware all the way up to Camden, New
Jersey. This storm revealed the fact that Delaware Bay is open to southeast
winds in the right quadrant, and water in the Bay would go upriver into
cities such as Wilmington, Philadelphia, and Camden.
The Last Island Hurricane of 1856--A monster hurricane struck the resort
Louisiana island. The storm represented the beginning of the decline of the
island for high society people in Louisiana. It only killed 284 people, but
among those dead were prominent Louisiana officials of the time including
the lieutenant governor, the speaker of the State house of representatives,
and many others prominent in the political and social history of the State.
Hurricane of September, 1874--Struck the Carolinas around the end of
September, 1874. This storm is remembered for being the first such hurricane
to be shown on a weather map by the Weather Bureau. At the time it was
shown, the hurricane was located off the Southeast Coast between
Jacksonville, Florida and Savannah, Georgia.
Hurricane of September, 1875--Was an intense hurricane that struck the
Southern Coast of Cuba as predicted by Father Benito Vines, who began to
develop a tremendous reputation for accurately predicting when and where a
hurricane would strike. His studies of tropical storms and hurricanes during
the latter portion of the 19th Century made the Cuban forecasters some of
the best hurricane forecasters in the world at the time.
The Centennial Gale--Striking during the year of the 100th anniversary of
the Declaration of Independence, the Centennial Gale was a hurricane that
stormed ashore in Swan Quarter on September 16th and 17th after killing
hundreds of people in Puerto Rico. Also known to many as the San Felipe
The Great Tempest of 1879--One of the strongest east coast hurricanes of the
19th century, the storm slammed ashore in Eastern North Carolina on August
18th. It produced wind gusts of 138 miles per hour at Cape Lookout with
gusts up to 168 miles per hour. Wind instruments from Cape Lookout to Cape
Hatteras to Cape Henry in Virginia are devastated.
Indianola Hurricane of 1886--Destroyed what had been the leading port city
in Texas at the time on August 19-20, 1886. Indianola, which was located in
Matagorda Bay, was hit by this storm, and another one a bit more than a
month later. As a result, business that previously came into that port,
moved up the coast to Galveston, which became the prominent port city in the
Lone Star State until it was devastated by the Great Hurricane of 1900.
The Sabine Pass Storm of 1886--A storm devastated the Johnson's Bayou
settlement, and the Sabine Pass region near the Texas and Louisiana border
killing about 150 people in Johnson's Bayou and wiping Sabine Pass off the
Atlantic Hurricane of 1893--Was a strong Category One Hurricane that struck
New York City with 90 mph winds on August 24th of that year. Barometric
pressure was only 29.23 inches of Hg, but it leveled some one hundred trees
in Central Park. The beach and piers on Coney Island was devastated.
However, it wasn't as bad as Hog Island, a sand spit off Rockaway Beach that
was wiped off the map.
Sea Islands Hurricane of 1893--A major hurricane of Category Three strength
that made landfall in Savannah, Georgia on August 27th, but its northeast
quadrant hammered Sea Islands in Beaufort County, South Carolina. As a
result, approximately 2,000 to 2,500 people were killed and upwards of
30,000 people were left homeless.
Cheniere Caminada Hurricane of October 1893 --A devastating hurricane swept
in from the Gulf and across this barrier island in Louisiana on October 2nd,
and killed approximately 1,150 people in the fishing village of
Caminadville. A total of nearly 1,700 people were lost in the storm
Galveston Hurricane of 1900--The deadliest natural disaster in United States
History, this Category Four Hurricane moved through Cuba into the Gulf of
Mexico before slamming ashore in Galveston, Texas on September 8, 1900
killing 6,000 people.