Discussion:
team recalculates volume of 215,000 glaciers around world -- finds 18% decline & contributing 1/2" to SLR 1990-2010
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M***@kymhorsell.com
2019-03-16 02:43:48 UTC
Permalink
<https://www.futurity.org/glacier-volume-1989722-2/>

Team calculates volume of 215,000 glaciers

Peter Rüegg
ETH Zurich
21 Feb 2019

Previous calculations overestimated the volume of the glaciers in High
Mountain Asia, report researchers.

The team of glaciologists used a combination of numerical models to
calculate the ice thickness distribution and the ice volume of some
215,000 glaciers around the world. They excluded sea ice and glaciers
that are connected to the Greenland and Antarctic ice sheets from
their calculations.

Climate change is causing glaciers to shrink around the world. Reduced
meltwaters from these glaciers also have downstream effects,
particularly on freshwater availability. A lack of meltwater can
greatly restrict the water supply to many rivers, especially in arid
regions such as the Andes or central Asia, which depend on this water
source for agriculture.

Up-to-date information on the worldwide ice volume is needed to assess
how glaciers-and the freshwater reserves they supply-will develop, and
how sea levels are set to change.

Less ice, actually

According to the study, the combined ice volume of all considered
glaciers currently amounts to some 158,000 cubic kilometers (about
38,000 cubic miles). The last available estimate-dating a few years
ago-was around 18% higher. The largest glacier ice masses (some
75,000 cubic kilometers or 18,000 cubic miles) occur in the Arctic and
account for almost half of the global glacier ice volume. They include
glaciers in both the Canadian and the Russian Arctic-such as those
found on Baffin Island and the Novaya Zemlya archipelago-as well as
glaciers along the Greenland coast and the Norwegian island of
Spitsbergen.

Together with Alaska, High Mountain Asia (that is the region including
the Himalayas, the Tibetan Plateau, and the mountains in central Asia)
is home to the largest ice masses outside the Arctic, accounting for a
volume of 7,000 cubic kilometers (1,680 cubic miles) in total. The
study indicates that previous calculations overestimated this volume
by almost a quarter.

Lost meltwater

"In light of these new calculations, we have to assume that glaciers
in High Mountain Asia might disappear more quickly than we thought so
far," says Daniel Farinotti, professor of glaciology at the Laboratory
of Hydraulics, Hydrology, and Glaciology at ETH Zurich and at Swiss
Federal Institute for Forest, Snow and Landscape Research WSL.

Previously, researchers had estimated that the area covered by
glaciers in this region would halve by the 2070s. This is now expected
to happen in the 2060s-with perceptible consequences for local water
supplies. The glaciers of High Asia, in fact, feed into large rivers,
including the Indus, the Tarim, and rivers feeding into the Aral
Sea. Hundreds of mns of people depend on them.

For the above regions and depending on the model, researchers expect
summer meltwater volumes to be as much as 24% lower by the end
of the century as they are today. "This difference is unsettling. To
get a more accurate estimation of the full extent, we would need
better measurements of the regional glacier volumes," Farinotti
says. As things stand, only few measurements are available for the
glacier ice thickness in the region, which hampers better model
calibration. Rising sea levels

Based on their calculations, the researchers also deduced that if they
were to melt away completely, the glaciers-or rather their
meltwater-could cause global sea levels to rise by up to 30
centimeters (about 1 foot). Between 1990 and 2010, glacier melt
contributed to raise sea levels by about 1.5 centimeters or just over
half an inch.

For their analysis, the researchers used a combination of up to five
independent numerical models. In these models, several sources of
information-including the glacier outlines derived from satellite
images and digital elevation models of the glacier surface-combined
with data about the glaciers' flow behavior. "This allows to infer the
spatial distribution of the ice thickness," Farinotti explains. To
calibrate the models, the team also used glacier ice thickness
measurements. But to date, such measurements are accessible for about
1,000 glaciers only, he says.

During the study, researchers from ETH and the WSL worked in
collaboration with scientists from the Universities of Zurich,
Fribourg, Erlangen-Nürnberg, and Innsbruck, and partners at the Indian
Institute of Technology Bombay. The work appears in Nature Geoscience.

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Bret Cahill
2019-03-16 03:41:41 UTC
Permalink
Post by M***@kymhorsell.com
<https://www.futurity.org/glacier-volume-1989722-2/>
Team calculates volume of 215,000 glaciers
Peter Rüegg
ETH Zurich
21 Feb 2019
Previous calculations overestimated the volume of the glaciers in High
Mountain Asia, report researchers.
The team of glaciologists used a combination of numerical models
Modeling is the the work of Satan.
Post by M***@kymhorsell.com
to
calculate the ice thickness distribution and the ice volume of some
215,000
Nummers is the work of the debil.
Post by M***@kymhorsell.com
glaciers around the world. They excluded sea ice and glaciers
that are connected to the Greenland and Antarctic ice sheets from
their calculations.
Climate change is causing glaciers to shrink around the world. Reduced
meltwaters from these glaciers also have downstream effects,
particularly on freshwater availability. A lack of meltwater can
greatly restrict the water supply to many rivers, especially in arid
regions such as the Andes or central Asia, which depend on this water
source for agriculture.
Up-to-date information on the worldwide ice volume is needed to assess
how glaciers-and the freshwater reserves they supply-will develop, and
how sea levels are set to change.
Less ice, actually
According to the study, the combined ice volume of all considered
glaciers currently amounts to some 158,000 cubic kilometers (about
38,000 cubic miles). The last available estimate-dating a few years
ago-was around 18% higher. The largest glacier ice masses (some
75,000 cubic kilometers or 18,000 cubic miles) occur in the Arctic and
account for almost half of the global glacier ice volume. They include
glaciers in both the Canadian and the Russian Arctic-such as those
found on Baffin Island and the Novaya Zemlya archipelago-as well as
glaciers along the Greenland coast and the Norwegian island of
Spitsbergen.
Together with Alaska, High Mountain Asia (that is the region including
the Himalayas, the Tibetan Plateau, and the mountains in central Asia)
is home to the largest ice masses outside the Arctic, accounting for a
volume of 7,000 cubic kilometers (1,680 cubic miles) in total. The
study indicates that previous calculations overestimated this volume
by almost a quarter.
Lost meltwater
"In light of these new calculations, we have to assume that glaciers
in High Mountain Asia might disappear more quickly than we thought so
far," says Daniel Farinotti, professor of glaciology at the Laboratory
of Hydraulics, Hydrology, and Glaciology at ETH Zurich and at Swiss
Federal Institute for Forest, Snow and Landscape Research WSL.
Previously, researchers had estimated that the area covered by
glaciers in this region would halve by the 2070s. This is now expected
to happen in the 2060s-with perceptible consequences for local water
supplies. The glaciers of High Asia, in fact, feed into large rivers,
including the Indus, the Tarim, and rivers feeding into the Aral
Sea. Hundreds of mns of people depend on them.
For the above regions and depending on the model, researchers expect
summer meltwater volumes to be as much as 24% lower by the end
of the century as they are today. "This difference is unsettling. To
get a more accurate estimation of the full extent, we would need
better measurements of the regional glacier volumes," Farinotti
says. As things stand, only few measurements are available for the
glacier ice thickness in the region, which hampers better model
calibration. Rising sea levels
Based on their calculations, the researchers also deduced that if they
were to melt away completely, the glaciers-or rather their
meltwater-could cause global sea levels to rise by up to 30
centimeters (about 1 foot). Between 1990 and 2010, glacier melt
contributed to raise sea levels by about 1.5 centimeters or just over
half an inch.
For their analysis, the researchers used a combination of up to five
independent numerical models. In these models, several sources of
information-including the glacier outlines derived from satellite
images and digital elevation models of the glacier surface-combined
with data about the glaciers' flow behavior. "This allows to infer the
spatial distribution of the ice thickness," Farinotti explains. To
calibrate the models, the team also used glacier ice thickness
measurements. But to date, such measurements are accessible for about
1,000 glaciers only, he says.
During the study, researchers from ETH and the WSL worked in
collaboration with scientists from the Universities of Zurich,
Fribourg, Erlangen-Nürnberg, and Innsbruck, and partners at the Indian
Institute of Technology Bombay. The work appears in Nature Geoscience.
N. Europe & S. Asia is all part of the conspiraCEEEEE.
Post by M***@kymhorsell.com
18 Mar 2019 Global SOTC NOAA
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